La transmission en jeu
" Dans l'horlogerie suisse, la tradition, c'est le savoir-faire ", m'avait fait remarquer un horloger sur un stand de la Foire professionnelle de Bâle. " Seulement, avait-il poursuivi, ce savoir est secret. C'est notre arme la plus efficace pour nous différencier des concurrents. Vous, l'anthropologue, vous n'y aurez pas accès ! " J'ai eu beau multiplier les prises de contact et les tentatives de rencontre avec les acteurs de la branche, il est vrai que, partout, je me suis cogné au secret et à ses multiples manifestations : silences, rétention d'informations, clauses de confidentialité, propriété intellectuelle, restriction d'accès, exclusivité... À force de persévérance, je suis finalement parvenu à mener un travail d'immersion de quatre années dans ce monde. Situé à la croisée de l'anthropologie des savoirs, des techniques et du patrimoine, le présent ouvrage propose une analyse complète de l'industrie horlogère helvétique en restituant le point de vue des gens qui la vivent au quotidien et en faisant apparaître une des tensions qui l'anime actuellement. Alors qu'il n'a jamais autant été question de transmission du savoir-faire et de patrimoine, nombreux sont les horlogers qui s'inquiètent pour la passation de leur métier et de ses spécificités dont ils craignent la perte inéluctable. Posant un regard sur l'actualité et l'histoire récente de cette industrie, ce livre est une invitation à comprendre ce qui a progressivement façonné un tel état de fait.
Industrial Development Technology Transfer and Global Competition
The phenomena of Japan emerging as one of the most competitive industrial nations in the twentieth century and the general shift of competitiveness to East Asia since the 1980s have been widely studied by many scholars from different fields of the social sciences. Drawing on sources from Japanese, Swiss, and American archives, the historical analysis of this book tackles a wide range of actors and sheds light on the various processes that enabled Japanese watch companies to transfer technology and expand commercially starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. By exploring the case of the watch industry, this book serves to establish a better understanding of the origins of the competitiveness of Japanese manufacturing and its evolution until its decline in the post‐bubble economy (in the 1990s and 2000s).
Organizing Global Technology Flows
Research on the international transfer of technology in economics and management literature has primarily focused on the role of countries and that of companies, in particular multinational enterprises (MNEs). Similarly, economic and business historians have tended to view international technology transfer as a way for economically ‘backward’ countries to acquire new technologies in order to catch up with more developed economies. This volume provides a more in-depth understanding of how the international transfer of technologies is organized and, in particular, challenges the core-periphery model that is still dominant in the extant literature. By looking beyond national systems of innovation, and statistics on foreign trade, patent registration and foreign direct investment, the book sheds more light on the variety of actors involved in the transfer process (including engineers, entrepreneurs, governments, public bodies, firms, etc.) and on how they make use of a broad set of national and international institutions facilitating technology transfer. Put differently, the volume offers a better understanding of the complexity of global technology flows by examining the role and actions of the different actors involved. By bringing together a number of original case studies covering many different countries over the period from the late 19th to the 21st century, the book demonstrates how technology is being transferred through complex processes, involving a variety of actors from several countries using the national and international institutional frameworks.
Science in the Twentieth Century
With over forty chapters, written by leading scholars, this comprehensive volume represents the best work in America, Europe, and Asia. Geographical diversity of the authors is reflected in the different perspectives devoted to the subject, and all major disciplinary developments are covered. There are also sections concerning the countries that have made the most significant contributions, the relationship between science and industry, the importance of instrumentation, and the cultural influence of scientific modes of thought. Students and professionals will come to appreciate how, and why, science has developed - as with any other human activity, it is subject to the dynamics of society and politics.
The Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts
One of the great thinkers of the early 20th century, American economist and sociologist THORSTEIN BUNDE VEBLEN (1857-1929) is best remembered for coining the phrase "conspicuous consumption." This 1914 volume is considered by some Veblen's most important work, showcasing the underpinnings of his theories and speculations. Here, Veblen explores... . the battle between instinct and habit . how instinct shaped primitive technologies . how modern industrial arts reflect a collective instinct . the technology of the "predatory culture" . the differences between "peaceable ownership" and the "competitive system" . and more. ALSO FROM COSIMO: Veblen's The Vested Interests and the Common Man, The Theory of Business Enterprise, Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution, An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of Its Perpetuation, and The Engineers and the Price System
Between MITI and the Market
Over the postwar period, the scope of industrial policy has expanded markedly. Governments in virtually all advanced industrial countries have extended the visible hand of the state in assisting specific industries or individual companies. Although greater government involvement in some countries has lessened the dislocations brought about by slower growth rates, industrial policy has also caused or exacerbated a number of other problems, including distortions in the allocation of capital and labor and trade conflicts that undermine the postwar system of free trade. Only Japan is widely cited as an unambiguous success story. The effectiveness of its industrial policy is revealed in the successful emergence of one government-targeted industry after another as world-class competitors: for example, steel, automobiles, and semiconductors. Foreign countries fear that a number of still-developing industries—like biotechnology, telecommunications, and information processing—will follow the same pattern. But is industrial policy the main reason for Japan's economic achievements? The author asserts that the reasons for Japan's spectacular track record go well beyond the realm of industrial policy into broad areas of the political economy as a whole. In this book, the author attempts to identify the reasons for the comparative effectiveness of Japanese industrial policy for high technology by answering the following questions: What is the attitude of Japanese leaders toward state intervention in the marketplace? What is the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) doing to promote the development of high technology? How has the organization of the private sector contributed to MITI's capacity to intervene effectively? What elements in Japan's political system help insulate industrial policymaking from the demands of interest-group politics?