Punishment and Social Structure
Why are certain methods of punishment adopted or rejected in a given social situation? To what extent is the development of penal methods determined by basic social relations? The answers to these questions are complex, and go well beyond the thesis that institutionalized punishment is simply for the protection of society. While today's punishment of offenders often incorporates aspects of psychology, psychiatry, and sociology, at one time there was a more pronounced difference in criminal punishment based on class and economics. Punishment and Social Structure originated from an article written by Georg Rusche in 1933 entitled "Labor Market and Penal Sanction: Thoughts on the Sociology of Criminal Justice." Originally published in Germany by the Frankfurt Institute of Social Research, this article became the germ of a theory of criminology that laid the groundwork for all subsequent research in this area. Rusche and Kirchheimer look at crime from an historical perspective, and correlate methods of punishment with both temporal cultural values and economic conditions. The authors classify the history of crime into three primary eras: the early Middle Ages, in which penance and fines were the predominant modes of punishment; the later Middle Ages, in which harsh corporal punishment and capital punishment moved to the forefront; and the seventeenth century, in which the prison system was more fully developed. They also discuss more recent forms of penal practice, most notably under the constraints of a fascist state. The majority of the book was translated from German into English, and then reshaped by Rusche's co-author, Otto Kirchheimer, with whom Rusche actually had little discussion. While the main body of Punishment and Social Structure are Rusche's ideas, Kirchheimer was responsible for bringing the book more up-to-date to include the Nazi and fascist era. Punishment and Social Structure is a pioneering work that sets a paradigm for the study of crime and punishment.
Kitab i Aqdas
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Schaum s Outline of French Grammar
Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately, there's Schaum's. "This all-in-one-package includes more than 550 exercises with answers to sharpen your French grammar skills. Plus, you will have access to 90 minutes of downloadable audio files for additional practice--it's just like having your own virtual tutor! You'll find everything you need to build confidence, skills, and knowledge for the highest score possible. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. Helpful tables and illustrations increase your understanding of the subject at hand. This Schaum's Outline gives you 578 practice exercises Easy-to-follow review of French grammar Support for all the major textbooks for French courses Free audio download for additional comprehension practice Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time--and get your best test scores!
Le pi ge humanitaire
Somalie, Kurdistan, Yougoslavie... l'action humanitaire est au cœur de l'actualité et de la politique internationale. Le Piège humanitaire est le premier ouvrage qui présente un panorama complet de l'histoire, des acteurs, des situations et des implications politiques de l'activité caritative. A la fois essai et témoignage, ce livre est un outil pour ceux qui veulent s'engager dans cette actions comme pour ceux qui veulent mieux comprendre les enjeux politiques de l'humanitaire. Dans un texte inédit, adjoint à cette réédition, l'auteur fait le point sur le nouveau contexte de l'action humanitaire depuis l'effondrement du communisme à l'Est.
Global Culture Industry
In the first half of the twentieth century, Theodor Adorno wrote about the 'culture industry'. For Adorno, culture too along with the products of factory labour was increasingly becoming a commodity. Now, in what they call the 'global culture industry', Scott Lash and Celia Lury argue that Adorno's worst nightmares have come true. Their new book tells the compelling story of how material objects such as watches and sportswear have become powerful cultural symbols, and how the production of symbols, in the form of globally recognized brands, has now become a central goal of capitalism. Global Culture Industry provides an empirically and theoretically rich examination of the ways in which these objects - from Nike shoes to Toy Story, from global football to conceptual art - metamorphose and move across national borders. This book is set to become a dialectic of enlightenment for the age of globalization. It will be essential reading for students and scholars across the social sciences.